Stings of venomous snakes – first aid at a snake/viper sting



Stings of venomous snakes - first aid at a snake/viper sting

Dragons are widespread everywhere therefore where there would be no person, he can be exposed to their attack. Special danger is born in themselves by venomous snakes. Though aggression degree for the person concerning this property differs depending on their concrete look. In the territory of Russia and the adjacent states vipers and already are most widespread. At once It should be noted that the second are not dangerous to people. Moreover, they never attack the first, creeping away on distance, safe for them. Attack can already undergo only if purposely to tease it.

Absolutely in a different way the situation is with vipers and other types of venomous snakes. They are initially aggressive-minded. It should be meant as soon as they are noticed. It is better to avoid them as for provocation of attack there is enough presence of the person or an animal. Sometimes it happens so that the moment of a sting remains unnoticed. It is possible to understand about it only on deterioration of health or characteristic traces from stings on skin.

Symptoms of a sting of a snake

Clinical manifestations at stings of snakes, it is not dependent on their look, are characterized by some general signs. It is caused by presence of the components of snake poison possessing similar action. The main of hostile environment in relation to fabrics of the victim are:

  1. The neurotoxin – strikes nervous structures;

  2. The haemo lysine – causes disintegration of erythrocytes and other blood cells;

  3. Cardiotoxin – has toxic effect on heart and vessels;

  4. Holinesteraza – the enzyme breaking a neuromuscular transmission;

Besides the specified toxins snake poison contains a set of other components which have the destroying effect on fabrics.

The general symptomatology of a sting of a snake consists from:

Local manifestations

  1. Existence of traces from a sting in the form of two wounds of a triangular form located at one level up to 2-3 mm in size;

  2. Strong burning and pain in a sting place;

  3. Reddening and the expressed hypostasis of the fabrics surrounding a wound;

  4. Cyanotic or dark stains and blisters on skin near wounds from a sting;

  5. Bloody allocations from sting places

Disorders of warm activity

  1. Tachycardia (frequent heartbeat – 95-120);

  2. Falling of arterial pressure, is possible to critical level;

  3. Breath increase;

  4. Thorax pains

Neurologic violations

  1. Muscular weakness;

  2. Headaches;

  3. Obscuring of consciousness;

  4. Doubling in eyes and impossibility of concentration of a look;

  5. Decrease in visual acuity;

  6. Swallowing violation;

  7. Omission century and perekoshennost of the person;

  8. Body sleep, especially in the field of a sting

General changes

  1. Hemorrhages on skin;

  2. Hyper thermal reaction in the form of temperature increase of a body to high figures;

  3. Bloody vomiting and diarrhea;

  4. Muscle pains;

  5. The progressing hepatorenal failure;

Degree of expressiveness of symptoms depends on many factors among which major importance belongs to such:

  1. Species of a snake, its age and sizes. In this regard cobras, aspid, rattlesnakes are the most dangerous. Vipers concerning them are less poisonous though also cause serious deviations. Young and little snakes are less dangerous. Very much the importance belongs to intensity of a fright of a snake under the influence of which the bigger amount of poison is developed;

  2. Localization of a sting. Most often extremities are surprised, but also other places are sometimes damaged. In the first case symptoms develop more slowly, than in case of localization of a sting on a trunk, necks, the person or in the field of vessels;

  3. Age of the victim and its general state at the time of receiving a sting. Children and people of advanced age are most sensitive to stings of snakes. Their stings even can lead the weakest snakes to lightning death. The accompanying pathology considerably burdens toxic effect of poison;

  4. Behavior after a sting. Heavy traffics and run accelerate blood circulation and promote fast distribution of poison on all organism;

  5. Infection of teeth of a snake with pathogenic microorganisms. Can become the reason of infection of wounds and developments local it is purulent – necrotic processes.

These factors determine the speed of increase and extent of development of typical symptoms. They can as accrue gradually with stage-by-stage stratification at each other, and immediately to lead to development of a state of shock and fast death of the victim. The majority of vipers belong to type at which the symptomatology accrues gradually that does their stings less dangerous in comparison with other species of snakes. Therefore it is so important at suspicion on a sting of a snake immediately to ask for medical care.

Than the sting of concrete types of venomous snakes is dangerous?

Stings of venomous snakes - first aid at a snake/viper sting

Stings of the majority of species of the snakes living in our territories extremely seldom lead to death of victims. Though all-toxic reactions with threat to health develop quite often. The main danger is formation of extensive purulent wounds in a place of a sting of a snake. Toxic reactions are not bad stopped against adequately carried out anti-toxic therapy.

Differs in special rigidity in this plan royal aspid. Against insignificant morbidity of the sting already the sleep of extremities and all body after which full paralysis of all muscles follows in a few minutes starts accruing. If during this time not to manage to bring the patient to medical institution, the death will occur very quickly.

Cobra stings

Stings of a cobra are characterized by strong morbidity. In such cases into the forefront acts massive gemoliz erythrocytes with development of haemo lytic jaundice and liver failure. Neurotoxic reactions have minor character, making heavier the course of process and the general condition of the victim. On rescue of life of time also there is not a lot of that demands urgent hospitalization.

Stings yamkogolovy and rattlesnakes

Are characterized by severe pain and burning in a sting place. Very quickly hypostasis of the struck segment accrues and progresses, taking sites, remote from primary center. Over time in places of hypostasis there are multiple bruises and bubbles which tend to merge in extensive necrotic wounds. There is the strongest general hyper thermal reaction with gektichesky rise in body temperature, intoxication, a fever, nausea and vomiting. There is a threat of developing of internal bleedings from a digestive tract.

First aid at a snake/viper sting

Stings of venomous snakes - first aid at a snake/viper sting

A lot of things depend on timeliness of rendering and completeness of its volume. Therefore it is necessary to observe accurate algorithm thanks to which it is possible not only to save life to the victim, but also to minimize risk for health. By no means it is impossible to panic. Only quietly it is also purposefully possible to give really effective help.

First aid consists in the following:

  1. To calm the victim and to lay in horizontal situation. It will slow down a blood-groove and distribution of poison. If the snake is fixed to skin after a sting, it immediately take away. The contact duration is less, the amount of the emitted poison is less.

  2. To take off from an extremity all jewelry for the prevention of a sdavleniye of fabrics at increase of hypostasis;

  3. It is extremely desirable to kill whenever possible or precisely to identify a snake. If there is no opportunity to make it, the patient is watched. Absence of pain, hypostasis and any local or general manifestations is the certificate of a sting of a nonpoisonous snake;

  4. If it is accurately known that a venomous snake – actions begin immediately;

  5. Immobilization (obezdvizhennost) of the bitten area the longety or improvised tire;

  6. Suction of poison from wound surfaces. In an ideal has to it is made by means of a suction or a rubber pear. But at their absence resort to suction by a mouth if there are no obvious damages of the mucous;

  7. In need of the best suction it is possible to make small linear cuts of wounds from a sting;

  8. Imposing of the squeezing bandage is higher than the bitten area. Thus only lymphatic outflow and partially venous is blocked. Arteries have to function that will prevent heavy disorders of microcirculation and necrotic changes;

  9. Plentiful drink. It will reduce concentration of the toxins which got to blood;

  10. At development of lightning toxic and shock reactions resuscitation actions for restoration of passability of airways and indirect massage of heart are shown.

That you should not do:

  1. To take alcoholic beverages;

  2. To fuss, be exposed to physical activities;

  3. To impose a plait on an extremity. It will break blood supply of the struck fabrics, aggravating necrotic changes of skin;

  4. To make skin cuts in the field of hypostasis except for places of stings;

  5. To cauterize a sting place. It does not yield results, only increases the area of a wound surface;

  6. To impose warm compresses;

  7. Massivno to lay over an extremity ice as it leads to additional violation of blood supply in the struck segment. If to render a local hypothermia, only in a zone of the sting.

What it is necessary to make at a sting of a venomous snake?

All complex of actions shares on two stages: pre-hospital and specialized medical care. The sequence and volume of actions which need to be carried out in the conditions of medical institution depending on a situation and symptomatology at stings of a snake are visually displayed in the table.

Purpose of actions

By what way it is reached

Actions of the urgent help

Are directed on removal of snake poison from fabrics and wounds, and also on delay of its absorption. All their complex is listed in the previous section

Destruction of the poison circulating in a system blood-groove

Introduction of anti-toxic serum. It represents polyvalent (multicomponent) antibodies against action of various components of poison of the majority of species of snakes. They neutralize toxins. The dose gets out individually depending on weight of a state and is entered step by step on Bezredko’s method in order to avoid anaphylactic reactions

Infusional therapy (intravenous administration of solutions)

Solutions of glucose, sodium of chloride, Ringera-Locke, reosorbilakt, refortan, svezhezamorozhenny plasma are entered for completion of deficiency of liquid in an organism and decrease in concentration of toxins, stabilization of indicators of arterial pressure and polyorgan insufficiency

Reduction of allergic manifestations and vascular reactions

It is reached by introduction of glucocorticoid hormones (metilprednizolon, dexamethasone, a hydrocortisone)

Correction of the vital parameters

Resuscitation actions in the form of artificial ventilation of lungs and introduction of the adrenergichesky means supporting warm activity (adrenaline, noradrenaline, mezaton, dopamine)

Elimination of neurotoxic effect of poison

Application of antikholinesterazny preparations (prozerin, galantamin). They restore a neuromuscular transmission of impulses

Removal of toxic products

Diuretic preparations (furosemide, trifas)

Prevention of a hepatorenal failure

Introduction of an eufillin, gepatoprotektor (berlition, gepadif)

Prevention and treatment of purulent local complications

Introduction of antibiotics of a wide range (tsefotaksy, levofloksatsin, tsefepy)

Against treatment complex examination of the patient with research of the general blood test and a gemoliz, biochemical indicators, bilirubin, hepatic enzymes, the general analysis of urine, monitoring of basic vital parameters has to be conducted.

Specific prevention from stings of venomous snakes does not exist. Nonspecific are reduced to wearing long trousers and high boots or boots at stay in areas where distribution of snakes is recorded. Care and attentiveness when walking. In places remote from city conditions it is better to have at itself immune polyvalent serum from a sting of snakes.

Author of article: Koretskaya Lyudmila Mikhaelovna, infectiologist